28. Computer scientists are likely to learn a lot from teaching
DO WE NEED CITIES ANY MORE?
A I don't want to live in a city. Perhaps we
divide naturally into two types:
those for whom cities are vibrant and exciting, a focus for human
those for whom they are dirty, noisy and dangerous. It may be
but I'm in the latter camp. I do not believe that we are a species
improves in overcrowded conditions.
B A new study proposes a significant increase in the capacity of
cities through a combination of increased housing densities, lower
provision for cars and more onstreet parking, and the reuse of
space that is `devoid of any amenity value'. The benefit of this
to reduce the loss of green fields and to help `move towards more
patterns of development'.
C This study suggests that it would be possible to achieve a 25%
density in a typical provincial city without changing the
scene, although it would be necessary to reduce the size of the
substitute parking spaces for garages, Therefore, the cost of this
to have more people living in smaller homes at higher densities,
that are lined with parked cars. Can we really accept the notion
that space within
dwellings may be reduced even further? In times when, we are told,
standards are rising in real terms, is it realistic to seek to
D The streets of many inner suburbs are already line with cars on
reducing movement to a single lane. Increasing densities means
streets that are designed as linear car parks, bounded by even
units and tempered only be occasional trees sprouting from the
the benefits of higher density be worth the disadvantages of
parking? Can we achieve a satisfactory visual environment from such
Higher urban densities may be communally good for us, but they will
fail to meet
the aspirations of many prospective home owners.
E Those without economic choice can be directed to live in this
way, but if we
are to continue to rely on the private sector to produce this urban
it will need to appeal to the private developers' customers. Who
to live in these high-density developments of small dwellings, with
space and a chance to park on the highway if you are lucky enough to
find a space?
The main consumers will be single people, couples without children,
some `empty nesters' (people whose children have grown up and left
are people who can choose to spend much of their time outside their
he most of those urban cultural opportunities or getting away at
a country cottage or sporting activities.
F The combination of young family and a mortgage restricts the
spending power of many couples. Most people with a family will try
bringing up their children in a cramped flat or house. Space for
activity is important in developing the individual and in
equilibrium. The garden is the secure place where the children can
work off excess
G There is a danger that planners may take a dispassionate,
logical view of how
we should live, and seek to force society into that mould. A few
years ago a
European Commission study provided a good example of this. It took
quite sensibly, that housing should not be under-occupied because
this is a waste
of resources. Therefore, it would be much better if the many
thousands of old
ladies who live alone in large detached houses would more into small
thus releasing the large houses for families. What the study failed
was that many of those old ladies prefer to continue to live in
home with their familiar surroundings and, most importantly, with
What is good for us is not necessarily what we want.
H The urban housing option may be technically sustainable, but
unacceptable. There still seems to be a perception among planners
housing investment can be forced into those areas that planners want
developed, without proper consideration of where the prospective
to live. There is a fatal flaw in this premise. Housing developers
They are not irrevocably committed to building house and they are
to invest their resources in housing development. Unless there is a
prospect of a profit on the capital at risk in a housing project,
they may simply
choose to invest in some other activity.
Choose ONE phrase A-G from the box to complete each of the following
key points. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 34-39 on your
The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate
summary of points made by the writer.
You may use any phrase more than once.
There will be more green space available…
34. Residential density in cities will be
35. There are two types of...
36. There are three types of...
37.Developers are unlikely to build houses...
38.Planners might try to dictate...
39. Many people will not be happy...
A people likely to want to live in high-density accommodation. (名词)
B living in higher density accommodation. (分词短语)
C if houses are built smaller.
E if residential density in cities is increased. (让步状语从句)
D where old people should live.
F where people do not want to live.
G attitude towards city living.
34. C 35. G 36. A 37. F 38.D 39. B/E
Literacy in Freedonia's prisons
In 1993,the Government d Freedoma's National
Prisons Directorate (NPD) carried
out a research project to investigate the extent of literacy in
The notion that prisoners are poor readers and
writers seems to be questioned
very little by the public despite the lack of hard evidence to
support such a view.
The1e media, in particular, continue to portray prisoner as
illiterate and generally
poorly educated. Freedonia's leading daily newspaper, The Freedonian,
frequently makes such statements as 'Freedonia's jails are full of
people who can't
read!'(4 May, 1992). But the media are not the only ones who are
into attitudes of prison officials shows that they, too, hold that
poor readers (McDonne11,1989). Overseas studies have also been
strengthening this view. For example, a survey of Canadian prisoners
by Kohl in 1987
revealed a literacy rate ranging from 15% to 55%, while an
Australian study of the
same year showed similar results. To add to the general criticism,
criminologists are beginning to suggest that crime is a product of
1988;katz&Wallport, 1989). The NPD commissioned its study to
literacy with that of the general public to see how Freedonian
conform tοthese perceptions.
The study, carried out by the Literacy
Institute of the Freedonian National
University, took as samples 200 male prisoners from Yaxchilan Men's
Institute and 150 female prisoners from Monambak Women's Prison. The
each made to work through a series of activities designed to assess
three separate literacy areas. The three areas included what the
'X-literacy', which is the ability to correctly fill out forms or
directions; 'Y-literacy', the comprehension of reading passages; and
which calls for correct interpretation of text that is primarily
latter skill often includes some calculation. All activities were
identical to those
used in a national adult literacy survey carried out in 1990.
It was found that the prison population did,
in fact, have a lower rate of
X-literacy than the general population, but that the overall
difference was slight.
In an activity which had the prisoners complete mock job
applications, for example,
just 62% of female and 60% of male prisoners could correctly fill
applications compared with 66%in the national adult sample (see
figure l). Similar
differences were found between general and prison population
applications, although it should be mentioned that individual
differences in this
task were great.
There were activities in which prisoners did
more noticeably worse. however.
In one activity, the proportion of male prisoners who could
correctly identify the
main and secondary points of newspaper articles was 54%, compared
with 64% of the
general public. Interestingly, female prisoners, with 61%, were much
closer to the
national average for this activity. Prisoners, again more noticeably
did significantly worse in keeping a running total of a bank
account, a quantitative
task of relative complexity.
But, Importantly, both male and female
prisoners outperformed the national adult
sample in other activities; in one, far fewer general adults than
correctly interpret tram timetables, while in identifying directions
prescriptions, both male and female prisoners were marginally better
counterparts on the other side of the prison fence.
Below is a list of the materials used in assessing the three
literacy areas in the NPD study. Complete the list. Choose ONE or
TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in
boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
MATERIALS USED IN:
Example ·medical prescriptions
14. job applications
15. insurance applications
16. newspaper articles
17. train timetables
18. bank accounts
Job satisfaction and personnel mobility
Europe, and indeed al the major industrialized
nations, is currently going through a
recession. This obviously has serious implications for companies and
personnel who find
themselves victims of the downturn. As Britain apparently eases out
of recession, there are
also potentially equally serious implications for the companies who
survive, associated with
the employment and recruitment market in general.
During a recession, voluntary staff turnover is bound to fall
sharply. Staff who have
been with a company for some years will clearly not want to risk
losing their accumulated
redundancy rights. Furthermore, they will be unwilling to go to a
new organization where
they may well be joining on a 'last in, first out' basis.
Consequently, even if there is little or
no job satisfaction in their current post, they are most likely to
remain where they are, quietly
sitting it out and waiting for things to improve. In Britain, this
situation has been aggravated
by the length and nature of the recession-as may also prove to be
the case in the rest of
Europe and beyond.
In the past, companies used to take on staff
at the lower levels and reward loyal
employees with internal promotions. This opportunity for a lifetime
career with one company
is no longer available, owing to 'downsizing' of companies,
structural reorganizations and
redundancy programmes, all of which have affected middle management
as much as the
lower levels. This reduction in the layers of management has led to
flatter hierarchies, which,
in turn, has reduced promotion prospects within most companies.
personnel had become used to regular promotion, they new find their
progress is blocked.
This situation is compounded by yet another
factor. When staff at any level are taken on,
it is usually from outside and promotion is increasingly through
career moves between
companies. Recession has created a new breed of bright young
graduates, much more
self-interested and cynical than in the past. They tend to be more
wary, skeptical of what is
on offer and consequently much tougher negotiators. Those who joined
from education feel the effects most strongly and now feel uncertain
and insecure in mid-life.
In many cases, this has resulted in staff
dissatisfaction. More over, management itself has
contributed to this general ill-feeling and frustration. The caring
image of the recent past has
gone and the fear of redundancy is often used as the prime
As a result of all these factors, when the
recession eases and people find more confidence,
there will be an explosion of employees seeking new opportunities to
escape their current
jobs. This will be led by younger, less-experienced employees and
the hard-headed young
graduates. 'Head-hunters' confirm that older staff are still
cautious, having seen so many good
companies 'go to the wall', and are reluctant to jeopardize their
redundancy entitlements. Past
experience, however, suggests that, once triggered, the expansion in
recruitment will be very
The problem which faces many organizations is
one of strategic planning; of not knowing
who will leave and who will stay. Often it is the best personnel who
move on whilst the worst
cling to the little security they have. This is clearly a problem
for companies, who need a
stable core on which to build strategies for future growth.
Whilst this expansion in the recruitment
market is likely to happen soon in Britain, most
employers are simply not prepared. With the loss of middle
management, in a static
marketplace, personnel management and recruitment are often
conducted by junior personnel.
They have only known recession and lack the experience to plan ahead
and to implement
strategies for growth. This is true of many other functions, leaving
companies without the
skills, ability or vision to structure themselves for long-term
growth. without this ability to
recruit competitively for strategic planning, and given the speed at
which these changes are
likely to occur, a real crisis seems imminent.
According to the information in the reading passage, select the most
appropriate of the given options (A-D). write the appropriate letter
for each question in boxes 1-2 on your answer sheet.
1. The current economic downturn...
A has serious consequences for personnel and companies which survive
B has serious consequences for companies which survive
C may have serious consequences for companies which survive
D has serious consequences for voluntary staff
2. Many staff are not leaving their jobs because...
A they will lose their redundancy rights
B they would join a new company on a 'last in, first out' basis
C they are waiting for the economy to pick up
D they are dissatisfied with their current position
Answer: 1.C 2.C
In questions 3-8, complete each sentence by choosing one of the
possible endings from the list below, which best reflects the
information in the reading passage. Write the corresponding
letter(A-K) for each question in boxes 3-8 on your answer sheet.
Note there are more choices than spaces, so you will not need to use
all of them.
3.The 'downsizing' of companies…
4. Ambitious personnel…
5. Today, new graduates…
6. Long-serving personnel…
7. Management policy…
8. Companies often care less about staff and…
List of possible endings
A has often contributed to staff dissatisfaction
B are more skeptical and less trusting
C has affected all levels of personnel
D use fear as a means of motivation
E was usual in the past
F career moves between companies
G reduce the layers of management
H feel uncertain and insecure
I increasingly have to look elsewhere for promotion
J is a result of flatter hierarchies
K reward loyal employees with internal promotions
3.C 4.I 5.B 6.H 7.A 8.D
The paragraph below is a summary of the last section of the reading
passage. Complete the summary by choosing no more than two words
from the reading passage to fill each space. Write your answers in
boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
Taking all of these various ... into factors
When the Economy picks up and people …9…,
there will be a very rapid expansion in recruitment, younger
employees and graduates will lead the search for new jobs, older
staff being more …10… not knowing who will leave creates a
problem for companies; they need a …11… of personnel to plan and
build future strategies. This is a serious matter, as …12… is
often conducted by inexperienced staff, owing to the loss of many
middle management positions, this inability to recruit strategically
will leave many companies without the skills and vision to plan
ahead and …13… to achieve long term growth.
13.implement/build strategies//structure themselves