留学动态 澳洲院校 申请文书  PVA材料 雅思题库  雅思光盘 在线咨询 首页

返回>> >>雅思>>会员服务>>IELTStest>>阅读:第8课时


28. Computer scientists are likely to learn a lot from teaching girls.

28. Yes


A  I don't want to live in a city. Perhaps we divide naturally into two types:
those for whom cities are vibrant and exciting, a focus for human activity; and
those for whom they are dirty, noisy and dangerous. It may be unfashionable,
but I'm in the latter camp. I do not believe that we are a species whose behaviour
improves in overcrowded conditions.
B  A new study proposes a significant increase in the capacity of towns and
cities through a combination of increased housing densities, lower on plot
provision for cars and more onstreet parking, and the reuse of marginal open
space that is `devoid of any amenity value'. The benefit of this approach is
to reduce the loss of green fields and to help `move towards more sustainable
patterns of development'.
C  This study suggests that it would be possible to achieve a 25% increase in
density in a typical provincial city without changing the traditional street
scene, although it would be necessary to reduce the size of the houses and
substitute parking spaces for garages, Therefore, the cost of this approach is
to have more people living in smaller homes at higher densities, along streets
that are lined with parked cars. Can we really accept the notion that space within
dwellings may be reduced even further? In times when, we are told, living
standards are rising in real terms, is it realistic to seek to reduce persona
space standards?
D The streets of many inner suburbs are already line with cars on both sides,
reducing movement to a single lane. Increasing densities means accepting urban
streets that are designed as linear car parks, bounded by even smaller living
units and tempered only be occasional trees sprouting from the tarmac. Would
the benefits of higher density be worth the disadvantages of increasing on-street
parking? Can we achieve a satisfactory visual environment from such raw materials?
Higher urban densities may be communally good for us, but they will fail to meet
the aspirations of many prospective home owners.
E Those without economic choice can be directed to live in this way, but if we
are to continue to rely on the private sector to produce this urban housing,
it will need to appeal to the private developers' customers. Who will choose
to live in these high-density developments of small dwellings, with minimal open
space and a chance to park on the highway if you are lucky enough to find a space?
The main consumers will be single people, couples without children, and perhaps
some `empty nesters' (people whose children have grown up and left home). These
are people who can choose to spend much of their time outside their home, making
he most of those urban cultural opportunities or getting away at weekends to
a country cottage or sporting activities.
F The combination of young family and a mortgage restricts the mobility and
spending power of many couples. Most people with a family will try to avoid
bringing up their children in a cramped flat or house. Space for independent
activity is important in developing the individual and in maintaining family
equilibrium. The garden is the secure place where the children can work off excess
G There is a danger that planners may take a dispassionate, logical view of how
we should live, and seek to force society into that mould. A few years ago a
European Commission study provided a good example of this. It took the view,
quite sensibly, that housing should not be under-occupied because this is a waste
of resources. Therefore, it would be much better if the many thousands of old
ladies who live alone in large detached houses would more into small urban flats,
thus releasing the large houses for families. What the study failed to recognise
was that many of those old ladies prefer to continue to live in their family
home with their familiar surroundings and, most importantly, with their memories.
What is good for us is not necessarily what we want.
H The urban housing option may be technically sustainable, but individually
unacceptable. There still seems to be a perception among planners that new
housing investment can be forced into those areas that planners want to see
developed, without proper consideration of where the prospective purchasers want
to live. There is a fatal flaw in this premise. Housing developers run businesses.
They are not irrevocably committed to building house and they are not obliged
to invest their resources in housing development. Unless there is a reasonable
prospect of a profit on the capital at risk in a housing project, they may simply
choose to invest in some other activity.

Questions 34-39
Choose ONE phrase A-G from the box to complete each of the following key points. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 34-39 on your answer sheet.
The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of points made by the writer.
You may use any phrase more than once.
Example                             Answer
There will be more green space available…             E

34. Residential density in cities will be increased...
35. There are two types of...
36. There are three types of...
37.Developers are unlikely to build houses...
38.Planners might try to dictate...
39. Many people will not be happy...
A people likely to want to live in high-density accommodation. (名词)
B living in higher density accommodation. (分词短语)
C if houses are built smaller.
E if residential density in cities is increased. (让步状语从句)
D where old people should live.
F where people do not want to live.
G attitude towards city living.

34. C 35. G 36. A 37. F 38.D 39. B/E

Literacy in Freedonia's prisons

  In 1993,the Government d Freedoma's National Prisons Directorate (NPD) carried
out a research project to investigate the extent of literacy in Freedonia's prison

  The notion that prisoners are poor readers and writers seems to be questioned
very little by the public despite the lack of hard evidence to support such a view.
The1e media, in particular, continue to portray prisoner as illiterate and generally
poorly educated. Freedonia's leading daily newspaper, The Freedonian, for example,
frequently makes such statements as 'Freedonia's jails are full of people who can't
read!'(4 May, 1992). But the media are not the only ones who are critical. Research
into attitudes of prison officials shows that they, too, hold that prisoners are
poor readers (McDonne11,1989). Overseas studies have also been influential in
strengthening this view. For example, a survey of Canadian prisoners by Kohl in 1987
revealed a literacy rate ranging from 15% to 55%, while an Australian study of the
same year showed similar results. To add to the general criticism, Freedoonia's
criminologists are beginning to suggest that crime is a product of illiteracy (Bass,
1988;katz&Wallport, 1989). The NPD commissioned its study to compare prisoner
literacy with that of the general public to see how Freedonian prisoners actually
conform tοthese perceptions.

  The study, carried out by the Literacy Institute of the Freedonian National
University, took as samples 200 male prisoners from Yaxchilan Men's Correctional
Institute and 150 female prisoners from Monambak Women's Prison. The prisoners were
each made to work through a series of activities designed to assess performance in
three separate literacy areas. The three areas included what the study tem1ede
'X-literacy', which is the ability to correctly fill out forms or follow written
directions; 'Y-literacy', the comprehension of reading passages; and 'Z-literacy',
which calls for correct interpretation of text that is primarily number-based. This
latter skill often includes some calculation. All activities were identical to those
used in a national adult literacy survey carried out in 1990.

  It was found that the prison population did, in fact, have a lower rate of
X-literacy than the general population, but that the overall difference was slight.
In an activity which had the prisoners complete mock job applications, for example,
just 62% of female and 60% of male prisoners could correctly fill out the
applications compared with 66%in the national adult sample (see figure l). Similar
differences were found between general and prison population completing insurance
applications, although it should be mentioned that individual differences in this
task were great.

  There were activities in which prisoners did more noticeably worse. however.
In one activity, the proportion of male prisoners who could correctly identify the
main and secondary points of newspaper articles was 54%, compared with 64% of the
general public. Interestingly, female prisoners, with 61%, were much closer to the
national average for this activity. Prisoners, again more noticeably males, also
did significantly worse in keeping a running total of a bank account, a quantitative
task of relative complexity.

  But, Importantly, both male and female prisoners outperformed the national adult
sample in other activities; in one, far fewer general adults than prisoners could
correctly interpret tram timetables, while in identifying directions on medical
prescriptions, both male and female prisoners were marginally better than their
counterparts on the other side of the prison fence.

Questions 14-18
Below is a list of the materials used in assessing the three literacy areas in the NPD study. Complete the list. Choose ONE or TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
X-literacy activities
Example ·medical prescriptions
Y-literacy activities
Z-literacy activities

14. job applications
15. insurance applications
16. newspaper articles
17. train timetables
18. bank accounts

Job satisfaction and personnel mobility

  Europe, and indeed al the major industrialized nations, is currently going through a
recession. This obviously has serious implications for companies and personnel who find
themselves victims of the downturn. As Britain apparently eases out of recession, there are
also potentially equally serious implications for the companies who survive, associated with
the employment and recruitment market in general.

  During a recession, voluntary staff turnover is bound to fall sharply. Staff who have
been with a company for some years will clearly not want to risk losing their accumulated
redundancy rights. Furthermore, they will be unwilling to go to a new organization where
they may well be joining on a 'last in, first out' basis. Consequently, even if there is little or
no job satisfaction in their current post, they are most likely to remain where they are, quietly
sitting it out and waiting for things to improve. In Britain, this situation has been aggravated
by the length and nature of the recession-as may also prove to be the case in the rest of
Europe and beyond.

  In the past, companies used to take on staff at the lower levels and reward loyal
employees with internal promotions. This opportunity for a lifetime career with one company
is no longer available, owing to 'downsizing' of companies, structural reorganizations and
redundancy programmes, all of which have affected middle management as much as the
lower levels. This reduction in the layers of management has led to flatter hierarchies, which,
in turn, has reduced promotion prospects within most companies. Whereas ambitious
personnel had become used to regular promotion, they new find their progress is blocked.

  This situation is compounded by yet another factor. When staff at any level are taken on,
it is usually from outside and promotion is increasingly through career moves between
companies. Recession has created a new breed of bright young graduates, much more
self-interested and cynical than in the past. They tend to be more wary, skeptical of what is
on offer and consequently much tougher negotiators. Those who joined companies directly
from education feel the effects most strongly and now feel uncertain and insecure in mid-life.

  In many cases, this has resulted in staff dissatisfaction. More over, management itself has
contributed to this general ill-feeling and frustration. The caring image of the recent past has
gone and the fear of redundancy is often used as the prime motivator.

  As a result of all these factors, when the recession eases and people find more confidence,
there will be an explosion of employees seeking new opportunities to escape their current
jobs. This will be led by younger, less-experienced employees and the hard-headed young
graduates. 'Head-hunters' confirm that older staff are still cautious, having seen so many good
companies 'go to the wall', and are reluctant to jeopardize their redundancy entitlements. Past
experience, however, suggests that, once triggered, the expansion in recruitment will be very

  The problem which faces many organizations is one of strategic planning; of not knowing
who will leave and who will stay. Often it is the best personnel who move on whilst the worst
cling to the little security they have. This is clearly a problem for companies, who need a
stable core on which to build strategies for future growth.

  Whilst this expansion in the recruitment market is likely to happen soon in Britain, most
employers are simply not prepared. With the loss of middle management, in a static
marketplace, personnel management and recruitment are often conducted by junior personnel.
They have only known recession and lack the experience to plan ahead and to implement
strategies for growth. This is true of many other functions, leaving companies without the
skills, ability or vision to structure themselves for long-term growth. without this ability to
recruit competitively for strategic planning, and given the speed at which these changes are
likely to occur, a real crisis seems imminent.

Questions 1-2
According to the information in the reading passage, select the most appropriate of the given options (A-D). write the appropriate letter for each question in boxes 1-2 on your answer sheet.
1. The current economic downturn...
A has serious consequences for personnel and companies which survive
B has serious consequences for companies which survive
C may have serious consequences for companies which survive
D has serious consequences for voluntary staff

2. Many staff are not leaving their jobs because...
A they will lose their redundancy rights
B they would join a new company on a 'last in, first out' basis
C they are waiting for the economy to pick up
D they are dissatisfied with their current position

Answer: 1.C 2.C

Questions 3-8
In questions 3-8, complete each sentence by choosing one of the possible endings from the list below, which best reflects the information in the reading passage. Write the corresponding letter(A-K) for each question in boxes 3-8 on your answer sheet. Note there are more choices than spaces, so you will not need to use all of them.
3.The 'downsizing' of companies…
4. Ambitious personnel…
5. Today, new graduates…
6. Long-serving personnel…
7. Management policy…
8. Companies often care less about staff and…
List of possible endings
A has often contributed to staff dissatisfaction
B are more skeptical and less trusting
C has affected all levels of personnel
D use fear as a means of motivation
E was usual in the past
F career moves between companies
G reduce the layers of management
H feel uncertain and insecure
I increasingly have to look elsewhere for promotion
J is a result of flatter hierarchies
K reward loyal employees with internal promotions

3.C 4.I 5.B 6.H 7.A 8.D

Questions 9-13
The paragraph below is a summary of the last section of the reading passage. Complete the summary by choosing no more than two words from the reading passage to fill each space. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

Example                   Answer
Taking all of these various ... into     factors

  When the Economy picks up and people …9…, there will be a very rapid expansion in recruitment, younger employees and graduates will lead the search for new jobs, older staff being more …10… not knowing who will leave creates a problem for companies; they need a …11… of personnel to plan and build future strategies. This is a serious matter, as …12… is often conducted by inexperienced staff, owing to the loss of many middle management positions, this inability to recruit strategically will leave many companies without the skills and vision to plan ahead and …13… to achieve long term growth.

9.find confidence
11.(stable) core
12.(personnel) recruitment/management
13.implement/build strategies//structure themselves



软件|在线咨询|Home|Contact Us